Essay Question: One of these three questions will be on the midterm. The answer should have a thesis, and supporting evidence to support its main points. 1. In the nineteenth century, Middle Eastern powers started to undertake serious efforts to reform their societies. To what extent were they successful? Why or why not? Make sure to analyze specific historical examples to support your thesis. 2. How did World War I transform the political landscape of the Middle East? What remained the same? What changed? Why? Which historical processes became more important after 1918 in the region? 3. Compare and contrast the experiences of two different countries in the Middle East during the interwar period 1918-1939. How did each react to European imperialism, and how did each attempt to establish its own independent state?